Photos for The Red Gene: where it all happens

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Suicide Hill, Jarama  PART 1                       Republican hospital at Tarancón PART 1

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2004_1031Image0084 Railway line Antequera to Algeciras PART 3


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Rio Borosa 11      Rio Borosa 2


Sierras de Segura & Cazorla, Jaén  PART 3

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Civil War trenches, Sierra de Huetor, Granada

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indio-vigila-Andalucia-AYUNTAMIENTO-ANTEQUERA_EDIIMA20160318_0674_18Antequera: churches and Peña de los Enamorados (“The sleeping giant”)  PARTS 2, 4,  & 6

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River at Oxford  PARTS 5, 7, 9 & 13

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Parador, Jaén  PART 7


Granada, market in the Realejo PART 8


Campo del Prinicipe, Realejo, Granada (painting by Allan Dorian Clark)  PART 8

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Cañar, PARTS 7 & 9

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Alpujarras PARTS 7, 9 & 12

IMG_3437  Bodega Pampameira 3






Bibliography: Some of my background reading for ‘The Red Gene’


The Civil War

Paul Preston                                  The Spanish Holocaust

Richard Baxell                               Unlikely Warriors

Helen Graham                               The Spanish Civil War: a very short introduction

David Boyd Hancock                    I am Spain

Chris Farman, Valery Rose & Liz Woolley  No Other Way: Oxfordshire & the Spanish Civil War

Henry Buckley                                 The Life and Death of the Spanish Republic

George Orwell                                  Homage to Catalonia

Ronald Fraser                                   Blood of Spain: an oral history of the Spanish Civil  War


Women in the Civil War

Paul Preston                                        Doves of War: Four women of Spain

Angela Jackson                                   British Women and the Spanish Civil War

Jim Fyrth & Sally Alexander  (Ed.)  Women’s Voices from the Spanish Civil War

Judith Keene                                        The Last Mile to Huesca: an Australian nurse in the   Spanish Civil War

Nan Green                                            A Chronicle of Small Beer

Post-war Spain

Gerald Brenan                                     The Face of Spain

Ronald Fraser                                       The Pueblo

Ronald Fraser                                       In Hiding: the life of Manuel Cortes

Juan Eslava Galán                                Los Años del Miedo

Juan Eslava Galán                                De la Alpargata al Seiscientos


The Guerilla

David Baird                                           Between Two Fires

 Legacy of the Civil War

Giles Tremlett                                       Ghosts of Spain


Javier Cercas                                         Soldados de Salamina (Soldiers of Salamis)

Dulce Chacón                                         La Voz Dormida

Ángel Fábregas                                      Sulayr dame Cobijo

Almudena Grandes                               El Corazón Helado (The Frozen Heart)

Alberto Méndez                                     Los Girasoles Ciegos (Blind Sunflowers)

 Henry Buckley was the Daily Telegraph’s correspondent in Spain between 1929 and 1939. Based in Madrid but travelling widely, he witnessed first-hand the years of the Second Republic and the Civil War. His account, The Life and Death of the Spanish Republic, has the immediacy of someone on the spot throughout. Sir Paul Preston is the foremost authority on 20thcentury Spanish history and has written many books on the Spanish Civil War, including a biography of Franco. The Spanish Holocaust is a harrowing account of the war and its aftermath including the extra-judicial murder of around 200,000 men and women by the Franco regime. Doves of War: Four Women of Spain tells the fascinating and often tragic stories of four women involved in the conflict, two on each side. One of them is Nan Green, a communist who followed her husband George to Spain with the International Brigades and worked as a medical administrator. George was killed on the Ebro in 1938. She was an inspiring woman and her memoir, A Chronicle of Small Beer, makes compelling reading. For a concise history of the Civil War, I’d recommend Helen Graham’s The Spanish Civil War: a very short introduction. In I am Spain, historian David Boyd Hancock writes about the Civil War using the first-hand accounts of writers, artists, photographers and fighters from various countries who joined in the struggle against fascism. Unlikely Warriors   by Richard Baxell tells the story of the British volunteers, over 500 of whom gave their lives in the struggle. No Other Way, published by the Oxford branch of the International Brigades Memorial Trust, details the 31 volunteers, some quite famous, who had links with Oxford.

Angela Jackson examines the backgrounds, motives and experiences of women in the Civil War. Their involvement, whether as medical or relief workers, administrators, journalists or broadcasters, is also described, mostly in their own words, in the excellent anthology, Women’s Voices from the Spanish Civil War. Historian Judith Keene’s Last Mile to Huescais about Australian nurse Ada Hodgson and includes the diary she kept of her time in Spain.

Ronald Fraser’s oral histories, The Pueblo and In Hiding: The Life of Manuel Cortes give a fascinating picture of life during the long decades of Franco’s rule through the personal testimonies of one village’s inhabitants.

Between Two Fires describes life in the village of Frigiliana during the 1940s and 50s when quite a number of those opposed to the regime (and therefore under threat of imprisonment or worse) had taken to the hills and were conducting a kind of guerilla warfare with the Civil Guard. Local people were often caught in the middle, hence the title. David Baird, long resident in the village, uses many first-hand accounts to tell the story from both sides.

Juan Eslava Galán’s two books offer an ironic take on life during the dictatorship through stories peopled by fictional characters.

Ghosts of Spain by Giles Tremlett, formerly the Guardian’s correspondent, has lived in Madrid for many years and writes extremely well about contemporary Spain. The first part of the book, in particular, is about the legacy of the war.


Taking account of changing sexual mores

In writing a novel like The Red Gene with a time-frame that spans nearly eighty years and is set in two countries with differing cultures, attitudes to love and sex are one way of reflecting the changes and disparities in social mores. My three main characters, born in 1915, 1939 and 1975, respectively, one in England, the other two in Spain, have very different perspectives, due largely to the influence of the cultures they belong to.

Rose, born in the early 20th century, daughter of a Church of England vicar, has imbibed the conventional morality prevalent since Victorian times. Any departure from the acceptable norms of society carries a stigma, while the very real fear of pregnancy in the days before ready access to birth control is also a hugely inhibiting factor. Rose shivers at the thought of Clark House, a home for unmarried mothers in Oxford, run by Skene Moral Welfare. And of the disgrace an illegitimate child would bring on her parents. Jack is burdened with the intense shame of his own illegitimacy; another character must hide his homosexuality. War often breaks down social conventions and when Rose falls in love with Miguel in Spain after witnessing so many deaths at close hand, she grasps the fragility of life and how precious is love, and her inhibitions melt away.

Consuelo, growing up in the early years of Franco’s dictatorship, with the Catholic Church imposing its moral values and repressive rules on society, is reminded constantly of the penalties of sin. At home, at school, in church, in her compulsory attendances at Acción Católica or La Sección Feminina, the codes of acceptable behaviour are drummed into her, accompanied by warnings of the dire consequences should she stray from the correct path. The warnings start in childhood and increase further as she approaches puberty. From the age of thirteen, she isn’t allowed out without stockings, even in the summer; she must cover her arms and wear skirts that come well below the knee; she isn’t permitted to so much as speak to a boy… Meanwhile, her oldest brother Francisco considers her fair game and snatches any opportunity to sexually molest her. Another brother forces himself on one of the maids, leaving her pregnant, with the result that she is sacked in disgrace. As Consuelo notes, the rules are different for men. Her brothers openly frequent brothels. It is considered neither unusual nor immoral for men – whether married or not – to patronise these casade putas.

Courtship in the Franco years followed strict conventions. Novios were denied any time alone together; the chaperone (usually a family member) kept them in sight at all times. A brief, furtive kiss was the most that could be expected in 50s Spain. Consuelo is terrified at the prospect of her wedding night and feels only relief when the act is over. A couple of years later, she muses about the physical side of her marriage.

“They never talked about what went on in the bedroom. She relished the kisses and embraces, which kindled intensely loving feelings towards her husband, but the act that followed, though no longer painful as at first, was uncomfortable; she always felt relieved when it was over. Fortunately, Enrique’s performance rarely lasted long and, as the Sección Feminina book had promised, her husband quickly fell into a deep sleep, leaving her free to put in her rollers anapply her face cream. She still couldn’t quite shake off the notion that carnal relations were a mortal sin, even though the catechism stated that within the sacrament of holy matrimony, where procreation rather than physical pleasure was the aim, the act was sanctified. Enrique never asked if she’d enjoyed it; if he had, she would have lied rather than hurt his feelings.”

When the first northern European tourists begin to arrive on the coast in the 60s, with their bikinis and miniskirts, the repressed Spaniards are shocked. The men ogle, the women disapprove, worried about the effect on their husbands.

Marisol, growing up in the far more liberal atmosphere of post-dictatorship Spain, has a much more matter-of-fact approach to sex. For her it’s something to be enjoyed, not hung up about like her parents, who find it too embarrassing to talk about, preferring to steer clear of the subject and hope for the best with their daughters.

I’m of the opinion that when writing about sex, generally less is more. I don’t avoid it altogether but I do prefer to leave something to the imagination. Like most writers (I assume), I’d rather not be a contender for the Bad Sex Award.


Education in Spain during the Second Republic and under the Franco dictatorship

In the Spain of 1930, over half the population (and the great majority of women) were illiterate. More than a million children received no schooling at all. The nearest school might be more than two hours’ walk away and although there were plenty of families who thought it worth the effort in order for their children to receive education, not all were so motivated. Besides, the children were needed for agricultural work, often from a very young age. Miguel in The Red Gene tells Rose how, like many of the children in his village in rural Granada, he could only attend school after several hours of work on the land, starting before dawn and resuming after the school day finished. At certain times of the year like harvest season, all hands were needed, which meant half the children were absent from school.

The Second Republic, which put an end to the Primo de Rivera dictatorship and drove King Alfonso XIII into exile, was declared on April 14th 1931. It stood for democracy, progress and universal rights, a separation of Church and State. Under the Republic, power would rest with the people rather than the Army and the Catholic Church as before. The new constitution introduced agrarian reform, autonomy for the regions and recognition for their languages, reform of the Army to make it politically neutral, employment protection and equality for men and women. Universal suffrage was introduced for men and in 1933 this was extended to women.


Education – previously the preserve of the Church – was seen as one of the most vital tasks, the cornerstone of all the reforms to be introduced. Under the new constitution, free universal education – secular, compulsory and mixed – was established. A literate population was considered essential for the working of the Republic. Only through education would citizens become emancipated. It was also seen as a way of uniting a divided society. Ambitious plans were drawn up to create thousands of new schools (7,000 were built in a less than a year). Miguel felt passionate about the Republic’s plans for education, joining others in the community to help in the construction of one of the new schools. While they were still being built, temporary schools were set up in any serviceable location – often a room in the Town Hall. To ensure that education reached the entire population, teachers were reimbursed for visits to people’s homes, including the most remote farmsteads and cortijos, where these itinerant teachers sometimes arrived on donkeys. Pedagogical Missions were set up to recruit and give proper training to teachers, most of whom had been up till then poorly educated and poorly paid. School inspections were introduced and teachers required to complete university-level courses. Their salaries as well as their status rose accordingly. They were regarded as the intellectuals of their communities and highly respected.


Education was generally seen as a great privilege. Not just children but older people too were offered opportunities to learn. The Republic encouraged all forms of culture. Clapped out lorries brought mobile libraries and museums, film projections and theatre productions (including García Lorca’s Barraca travelling theatre company) to far-flung villages so that the rural population did not miss out.


Religious education had been the responsibility of The Compañia de Jesús. This was now disbanded and religious orders prohibited from teaching. Teachers were no longer obliged to impart religious doctrine. In fact teaching methods could not have been more different from what had gone before. Children were taken out into the countryside to study from nature; they were encouraged to participate in debates instead of reciting from memory; boys and girls shared the same classrooms and were educated in equal rights. The opportunity to progress from nursery school to university was offered to all, depending on ability, attitude and vocation rather than economic circumstances. Hardly surprising that all this was anathema to the Church and the fascist party, the Falange.

When Franco came to power, all these progressive educational policies were immediately reversed. Over fifty per cent of the teachers were either assassinated or went into exile. Responsibility for education reverted to the Catholic Church. Religious instruction in the morals and doctrine of Catholicism became compulsory in all schools, with inspections carried out by the Church. Regional languages were banned and pupils taught ‘patriotic values’. Mixed classes were prohibited, with girls’ education aimed at preparing them for their role as wives and mothers. The bachillerato end of school examinations ran on two tracks, thus ensuring social discrimination. This even extended to the uniforms worn by children of different classes. Consuelo in The Red Gene notes the striped uniforms worn by ‘the poor girls’, who play the same games in recreo but separately. Predictably, women’s right to vote was also abolished and not reintroduced until the new Spanish constitution was implemented in 1977.

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Tricks of time in life and in fiction

This month marks twenty years since I left England for Granada. The years are rolling by now at such a runaway pace I can scarcely believe it’s been two decades. My first year in Granada, on the other hand, felt more like ten. One of the great benefits of major change is the way time expands, the freshness of new experience lending every moment a savour that marks it out. That year, 1999, stretched out with a miraculous elasticity: a collection of discoveries, impressions, experiences like beads on a string, each one precious, if only for what it taught me. Striving to live wholly in the present, I learnt to use my senses more fully, to appreciate more.

The speed of time passing is one reason I dislike too much routine in my life. If you want to prolong time, routine is the enemy. Not that drawing out time is always desirable; sometimes I long to speed it up. When you’re in pain or waiting for something, time can drag interminably. I think the longest year of my life was the one following my miscarriage as I attempted to get pregnant again, my hormones screaming out their loss. Patience is not my best virtue but for a writer hoping to get published, it’s a necessity. Waiting for phone-calls, emails, other people’s decisions in any sphere of life can make every minute seem like an hour. Becoming a parent warps time similarly. There’s no comparison between the first month or year of your baby’s life (especially the firstborn) and a month or year when they’re at secondary school.

Time plays other tricks too, cruel or kind. Looking back on my own life as I work on my memoir, it strikes me just how crucial timing is in so many aspects of our lives. Meeting the right person at the wrong time or the wrong person at the right time can ruin a life. Catching the zeitgeist as a writer or any kind of entrepreneur requires astuteness but also an element of luck. Getting it right can make all the difference between success and failure. Accidents frequently happen through the tiniest of misjudgements. A split second when life and death are a mere hair’s breadth apart. Timing is all. The opening of my novel, Secrets of the Pomegranate, shows Deborah and her friend catching a train by the skin of their teeth. The train is one of four targeted in the 2004 terrorist attack in Madrid, ‘the train of death’ as the press (in real life) later termed it. Had they missed that train, there would have been no story.

Writing fiction entails making important decisions about how to deal with the passage of time. A novel can span a day or a century. As a writer, you can manipulate the passing of time to best suit your story. In Secrets of the Pomegranate, the action is condensed into four weeks, with the past conveyed through Deborah’s diaries, which go back twenty years. The Red Gene, only a little longer in word count, spans eighty years with protagonists from three generations. Maintaining the thread of the story when bypassing large chunks of time poses a challenge but omitting or skimming over the less eventful periods is the only sensible option. No one wants to read about the boring bits of the characters’ lives. (Would that in real life we could press a fast-forward button to skip the boring bits and a repeat or slow motion button for the good bits.)

Time can so often fool us, distorting the passage of time as we look back. Events that our brain places in the distant past may have taken place just weeks earlier if some dramatic interruption to our normal routine has occurred in the interim, while experiences from long ago may be so strong in our memory that they seem like yesterday. Watching a slide show of my overland trip to Kathmandu in 1974, taken by a fellow-traveller, transported me back to my twenties, the forty plus intervening years shrunk to nothing. My married years up to 1984, on the other hand, belong to a whole different lifetime.

Writing from the point of view of Rose, the central character of The Red Gene, I had first to get into the mind of a girl in her early twenties. Seeing life through her eyes as she aged and was moulded by the experiences that made up her story involved accompanying her right through to her nineties. Having worked with older people in the past (decades ago but still vivid in my mind) helped me portray Rose in old age. I don’t feel my age or I don’t feel any different were phrases I would hear almost daily. What is forty or sixty or eighty supposed to feel like? Time impacts people in different ways. Assumptions about age and attitudes to it differ from one culture to another and even in the same culture expectations of age change over time.

When I reflect on my twenty years in Granada, I don’t feel I’ve changed significantly although the world around me certainly has. The steep learning curve involved in settling in a new country has been tough at times but also energising. Maybe I’m a tiny bit wiser and know myself a little better as a result. I’ve become a grandmother (five times over). But do I feel my age? Of course not!

Forward into a New Year


The year is coming to an end, another about to begin. In front of me lies a virgin diary. Its ruled divisions into days, weeks, months represent an uncharted future. Just as I did last year and the year before, I stare at the blank pages, wondering what will fill them. Will 2019 be good or bad or a balanced mix? Who will I meet? What unexpected events – personal or political – will mark it? Will my loved ones stay safe from harm? It sounds dramatic but can I even count on surviving the year? This year, amongst my friends, one was diagnosed with an already well-advanced cancer that came completely out of the blue to him. Another friend lost her partner, also due to an undetected cancer; he lived for only weeks from first diagnosis. But the future can also bring unlooked for miracles: hopes fulfilled, unexpected joys, triumphs over adversity.

The blank pages of a new diary have something in common with the blank page – whether on screen or paper – that faces a writer. The difference is one of agency. I have only partial control over what will happen in the year to come. World events, accidents, illness, freak weather, other people’s actions are beyond my personal control, whereas I can fill the blank page of my story, poem or novel with whatever I choose.


As I began to jot down the first entries for 2018 at the close of last year– a family reunion in Wales for New Year, my return flight to Granada, the resumption of classes, lunch with my publisher – I had no intimation of what would intervene to derail some of these arrangements. No idea that my house would catch fire, forcing me to move out for a month. Not an inkling that one of the absurdly expensive hearing aids I depend on for communication would fall out and be irretrievably lost. Nor the slightest intimation that the publishing contract I’d secured a month earlier would, halfway through the year, be cancelled. (Had I known in advance that three months later it would be reinstated, my summer would have been a good deal happier.) The accumulation of all these unexpected events made a big hole in my finances that I could not have anticipated.

2019 will, I hope, be better. On the personal level I have the publication of my novel, The Red Gene, to look forward to in April. Soon I will begin planning the launch and, hopefully, more talks, presentations and interviews in the UK and in Spain. Will the spark for a new novel strike? Of the various half-formed ideas in my mind will one compelling project emerge? Or will I continue with and perhaps complete the memoir I am currently working on?

The Red Gene Amazon

On the global stage I am more fearful than at any time since the eighties, when the threat of nuclear war – by design or accident – appeared highly credible. I spent considerable amounts of my time during that decade campaigning against nuclear weapons. Now the dangers are multiple and I fear more for my children and grandchildren and their entire generations than for myself. I fear for the hungry and dispossessed of the world, the refugees and victims of war, of climate disaster and the poisoning of the environment. I am afraid in the face of rising fascism in Europe, east and west, and in America, north and south.

Those are depressing thoughts for the start of a new year but there is always hope in new beginnings, the renewed energy that comes with longer days and the budding of nature in all its forms. Change for the better is possible if we care enough and don’t give up the struggle.


To end on a lighter note, this coming New Year’s Eve I will make sure to don my red underwear – Spanish superstition deems it essential if you want to ensure good luck in the year to come. Needless to say, it slipped my mind on 31st December last year.



Censorship in Franco’s Spain

In my novel The Red Gene, Consuelo, born in 1939 soon after the start of Franco’s dictatorship and brought up in a family of the landed class fully supportive of his regime, has limited access to books. As a child, her reading matter is restricted to religious works like Lives of the Spanish Saints and approved classics such as Don Quixote. Later, her somewhat subversive sister-in-law passes her a handful of novels banned by the censor and smuggled in from Mexico, among them Gulliver’s Travels and Portrait of Dorian Gray. Romantic serials in women’s magazines and romance novels by prolific author Corin Tellado formed the reading diet of most women – if they read at all. Illiteracy levels, especially among women, were shockingly high until as late as the 1970s.


Censorship under Franco was imposed on literature, radio, film and television, music and public performances. The great majority of books submitted to the censor for approval were banned. The Falange and the Church had direct control of the process, acceptance being subject to conformity with Franco’s political ideology and with Catholic morality. At the end of the Civil War, most of the intellectuals and artists who had defended the Republic – those who had not been imprisoned or killed – had gone into exile. In terms of culture and art, it was a bleak time. Those whose creative endeavours were not inspired by the principles of Francoism – exalting the military ethos, Spanish nationalism and fundamentalist Catholicism – were liable to be persecuted.

Unsurprisingly, the Press came in for particularly strict curbs. Franco’s brother-in-law, Ramón Serrano Suñer, was placed in charge of press and propaganda. His Interior Ministry controlled all types of publication so that the news could be manipulated and used as a means of spreading propaganda. Republicans and communists were to be reviled. For example, at the end of World War II, newspapers were encouraged to play down Russia’s victories over the Nazis but extol those of the Americans and British. The directors of each newspaper were appointed by the regime and only approved journalists were issued with the press cards required to practise their profession. ‘Informative’ texts were sent out for obligatory insertion in the media. ‘Fake news’ is nothing new. The only written medium to escape government censorship was the magazine Ecclesia, the organ of the Episcopate and Acción Católica. In the issue of March 1944, they advised: No se debe leer, más que por inmoral, que lo es bastante, por repulsivamente realista. Reading was discouraged for its ‘repugnant realism’ as well as its immorality.


The censors, well paid by the Ministry, had to read every publication from beginning to end and indicate any part that infringed the law. To begin with, they were academics close to the regime. Later the task fell to untrained functionaries or in some cases writers (Camilo José Cela was one; ironically his own novel La Colmena, The Beehive, was banned in Spain until 1955 and had to be published first in Argentina). In the absence of any clear judicial guidelines, much depended on the personal prejudices – ideological or moral – of the particular censor and on his character or his state of mind at the time. It was the job of the illustrators of magazines and newspapers to retouch any drawings or photographs so that they complied with the requirements of Francoism and the Church. Usually but not always this involved the female figure.


Radio Nacional España had a complete monopoly on broadcast news. However, at the suggestion of Dolores Ibárruri, ‘La Pasionaria’, the Spanish Communist Party set up a clandestine radio station, Radio España Independiente. Broadcasting from Moscow (and later Bucharest) every day between 1941 and 1977, it brought news from the BBC and Radio Francia Internacional in Spanish and was known as La Pirenaica, to give the impression it came from somewhere closer (the Pyrenees). Merely daring to tune in to the station was considered a sign of opposition to Franco. In The Red Gene, the local pharmacist in Consuelo’s community is arrested and imprisoned for many years after being caught listening to La Pirenaica.




Films, especially foreign films, were an obvious target for censorship. Moral, religious and ideological content was tightly controlled, which frequently meant cutting scenes and manipulating dialogue (dubbing provided the perfect opportunity for this). Sexual content came in for particular attention. Actresses had their busts reduced and the necklines of their dresses raised so as not to scandalise their audience. Certain terms were forbidden, such as the words for thigh or groin or for items of underwear. ‘Lewd’ kissing, over-effusive demonstrations of affection, states of undress, uninhibited dancing, divorce and adultery were among the objects of the censor’s scissors. This was at times taken to extremes. For example, in the 1953 John Ford film Mogambo, starring Clark Gable, Ava Gardner, Donald Sinden and Grace Kelly, dubbing transformed the lovers into brother and sister – a change that left Spanish viewers watching the original footage somewhat puzzled. Adultery had given way to incest. During the early years of the regime, any actor or director who had expressed sympathy for the Republic was blacklisted. The list included twenty-nine Hollywood stars, among them Charlie Chaplin, Bette Davis and Joan Crawford.


Theatre and music were similarly controlled. Theatre companies had to subject their plays to the Board of Censorship for Theatrical Works, which could change dialogue or entire scenes or ban the work completely, besides changing details of the set design, the costumes or the sound track. With regard to music, some Spanish artists were considered a danger to the regime and blacklisted, while foreign singers and groups were strictly censored. Four million songs were vetoed on radio and television; album covers like the Rolling Stones’ Sticky Fingers, the Who’s Quadrophenia and David Bowie’s The Man who Sold the World were embargoed.


Another form of censorship was the prohibition of regional languages in favour of castellano and the repression of regional cultures in order to impose national uniformity. This often involved manipulating history so that it bore little relation to the facts. Journalists in any case had little opportunity to inform their readers truthfully. As everything had to pass through the filter of Francoism, citizens were offered only a partial view of reality. In 1966, the Press Law of 1938 was replaced by the Fraga Law, named after the Minister of Information, Manuel Fraga. Although the new law appeared more liberal, in practice transgression could result in financial sanctions, confiscation of editions or closing down a publication completely, creating a climate of self-censorship among writers and editors. Only after Franco’s death was censorship finally abolished.